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Vol. 47. Issue 175.
Pages 83-89 (July - September 2012)
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Vol. 47. Issue 175.
Pages 83-89 (July - September 2012)
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Capacitat de salt i equilibri de joves i ancians actius físicament
Jump and balance performance in an active young and elderly Spanish population
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Elena Rodríguez-Berzala, Ignacio Ara Royob, Esmeralda Mata Gómez de Ávilab, Xavier Aguado Jódara
a Grupo de Biomecánica Humana y Deportiva, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Toledo, Espanya
b Grupo de Investigación GENUD Toledo, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Toledo, Espanya
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Introducció i objectius: La freqüència de caigudes per pèrdua d’equilibri dels ancians augmenta amb l’edat. L’objectiu d’aquest estudi fou analitzar la força explosiva de les extremitats inferiors i la capacitat d’equilibri en dues mostres de persones actives físicament: joves i ancians.

Material i mètodes: Participaren voluntàriament 8 ancians i 11 joves, tots actius físicament. Realitzaren els tests: salt amb contramoviment; equilibri estàtic en recolzament bipodal sobre escuma amb els ulls oberts, i límits de l’estabilitat en recolzament bipodal. Tots es realitzaren sobre una plataforma de forces.

Resultats i discussió: L’alçada del salt dels joves fou major (joves: 16,00 ± 2,73; ancians: 7,99 ± 2,23% estatura; p < 0,01). La rigidesa en el contramoviment de la batuda fou menor en els joves (p < 0,01). L’àrea recorreguda pel centre de pressions en el test d’equilibri estàtic fou menor en el joves (joves: 4,02 ± 1,09; ancians: 7,08 ± 1,79 cm2; p < 0,01). En canvi, en el test dels límits d’estabilitat, l’àrea del centre de pressions fou major en els joves (joves: 168,50 ± 32,26; ancians: 32,70 ± 37,54 cm2; p < 0,01). No es trobà cap correlació entre variables de força i equilibri. En el grup d’ancians el descens del contramoviment es correlacionà amb la rigidesa (r = −0,75; p < 0,05).

Conclusions: El grup d’ancians actius físicament conservava uns nivells de força destacables perquè pensava en prevenir les caigudes, tot i que baixaven molt poc en el contramoviment del salt. Si s’aconseguís augmentar el rang funcional en què fan força les extremitats inferiors es podria disminuir la rigidesa del contramoviment i millorar l’equilibri postural.

Palabras clave:
Biomecànica; Salt amb contramoviment; Caigudes

Introduction and aims: The risk of falls in the elderly populations due to loss of balance increases with age. The aim of the present study is to analyse the relationship between lower limb explosive strength and the ability to maintain balance in two different samples of active young and elderly subjects.

Material and methods: Subjects included in the study were 8 elderly and 11 young volunteers, all of them physically active. Counter-movement jump tests and one-leg static balance tests using a foam-rubber surface were applied and measured by a force plate.

Results and discussion: Height jumped was higher in the young, compared to the elderly volunteers (16.00 ± 2.73 vs. 7.99 ± 2.23% height; P < .001, respectively). The countermovement stiffness of the initial phase (P < .01) and the distance of the centre of pressures during static balance test was lower in the young group, compared to elderly (4.02 ± 1.09 vs. 7.08 ± 1.79 cm2; P < .01, respectively). Moreover, the limits of the stability of the centre of pressures were higher in the elderly than in the young (168.50 ± 32.26 vs. 32.70 ± 37.54 cm2; P < .01, respectively). No significant correlations were found between the strength and balance variables. In the elderly group, the countermovement descendent phase correlated with stiffness (r = −0.75; P < .05).

Conclusions: Although countermovement descendent phase of the jump was reduced, the active elderly maintained sufficient strength levels that could prevent falls. We believe that reduced stiffness during countermovement jumps and better postural balance can be obtained by increasing functional range of movement in their lower extremities.

Keywords:
Biomechanics; Countermovement jump; Falls
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