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Vol. 53. Issue 198.
Pages 47-54 (April 2018)
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Vol. 53. Issue 198.
Pages 47-54 (April 2018)
Dormen bé els esportistes d’elit?
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Carla Estivill-Domènecha, Beatriz Galileab, Beatriz Rodríguez-Morillac, Ignasi de Yzaguirred, Eduard Estiville, Elena Lópezf, María Antonia Zamorag, Juan Antonio Madridc, Francisco Segarrae
a Fundación Estivill Sueño, Barcelona, Espanya
b Departament de Psicologia, Centre de Medicina de l??Esport, Consell Català de l??Esport, Generalitat de Catalunya, Esplugues de Llobregat, Barcelona, Espanya
c Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria Virgen de la Arrixaca (IMIB), Campus Ciencias de la Salud, El Palmar, Múrcia, Espanya
d Departament de Medicina de l??Esport, Centre de Medicina de l??Esport, Consell Català de l??Esport, Generalitat de Catalunya, Esplugues de Llobrebat, Barcelona, Espanya
e Clínica del Sueño Estivill, Hospital Quirón-Dexeus, Barcelona, Espanya
f Servei de Tutoria, Residència Blume, Consell Català de l??Esport, Generalitat de Catalunya, Esplugues de Llobregat, Barcelona, Espanya
g Departament d??Infermeria, Centre de Medicina de l??Esport, Consell Català de l??Esport, Generalitat de Catalunya, Esplugues de Llobregat, Barcelona, Espanya
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Introducció: L’objectiu de l’estudi fou avaluar el son, els ritmes circadiaris i l’estat neurocognitiu d’esportistes d’alt rendiment durant el període habitual d’entrenament, competicions i estudis.

Material i mètode: S’avaluà un equip de 12 jugadores (dones, 15-17 anys) de bàsquet d’alt rendiment, concentrat en una residència d’esportistes. S’estudià el son mitjançant polisomnografia, els ritmes circadiaris mitjançant sensors de monitoratge circadiari ambulatori, i l’estat neurocognitiu mitjançant una bateria de qüestionaris.

Resultats: Les esportistes dormen 6:57 ± 0,02 h; l’activitat nocturna, del 201,1 ± 33,7%, se situa per damunt de la normalitat (65-135%); la regularitat d’horaris, d’un 72,6 ± 9,2%, també està fora del rang normal (75-125%). La profunditat del son, del 85,1 ± 2,6% (valors normals entre 85-100%), és reduïda, i la temperatura perifèrica elevada durant el dia, de 33,4 ± 0,9 ºC (valors normals entre 31-33 ºC), indica somnolència.

Conclusions: Les esportistes del nostre estudi dormen menys hores de les necessàries, la qualitat del son és baixa, degut a la fatiga muscular i a uns mals hàbits, i els horaris irregulars deterioren el sistema circadiari. Tot això influeix en el rendiment, tant físic com mental. És basic conscienciar el col·lectiu, amb tots els estaments implicats, de la importància de millorar aquests hàbits de son a fi de mantenir el rendiment físic òptim.

Introduction: The objective of the study was to evaluate sleep, circadian rhythms and neurocognitive status of high performance athletes during the usual period of training, competitions and studies.

Material and method: A team of 12 high-performance basketball players (women, 15-17 years old) concentrated in a sports residence was evaluated. Sleep was studied through polysomnography, circadian rhythms using ambulatory circadian monitoring sensors, and neurocognitive status using a battery of questionnaires.

Results: Athletes sleep 6:57 ± 0.02 h, nocturnal activity of 201.1 ± 33.7% is above normal range (65-135%), regularity of schedules, 72.6 ± 9.2% is also out of range (75-125%). The sleep depth of 85.1 ± 2.6% (normal values between 85 and 100%) is reduced, and the peripheral temperature during the day, of 33.4 ± 0.9 ºC (normal values between 31 and 33 ºC), indicates drowsiness.

Conclusions: Our sample of athletes sleep less than the necessary hours, their sleep quality is low due to muscle fatigue and poor habits, and their irregular schedule deteriorates the circadian system. All of this influences both physical and mental performance. It is essential to raise awareness of the importance of improving these sleep habits in order to maintain optimum physical performance.

Keywords:
Sleep; Sports performance; Fatigue; Sleepiness; Circadian rhythms; Invisible training

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