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Vol. 53. Issue 198.
Pages 47-54 (April - June 2018)
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Vol. 53. Issue 198.
Pages 47-54 (April - June 2018)
Original Article
Do elite athletes sleep well?
¿Duermen bien los deportistas de élite?
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Carla Estivill-Domènecha,
Corresponding author
carla@doctorestivill.es

Corresponding author.
, Beatriz Galileab, Beatriz Rodríguez-Morillac, Ignasi de Yzaguirred, Eduard Estiville, Elena Lópezf, Maria Antonia Zamorag, Juan Antonio Madridc, Francisco Segarrae
a Fundación Estivill-Sueño Barcelona, Spain
b Dept. Psicología, Centre de Medicina de l’Esport, Consell Català de l’Esport, Generalitat de Catalunya, Esplugas, Spain
c Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria Virgen de la Arrixaca (IMIB), Campus Ciencias de la Salud, El Palmar, Murcia, Spain
d Dept. Medicina de l’Esport, Centre de Medicina de l’Esport, Consell Català de l’Esport, Generalitat de Catalunya, Esplugas, Spain
e Clínica del Sueño Estivill, Hospital Quirón-Dexeus, Barcelona, Spain
f Servei de Tutoria, Residencia Blume, Consell Català de l’Esport, Generalitat de Catalunya, Esplugas, Spain
g Dept. Infermeria, Centre de Medicina de l’Esport, Consell Català de l’Esport, Generalitat de Catalunya, Esplugas, Spain
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Tables (3)
Table 1. Average and standard deviation of polysomnographic parameters during the study of one night's sleep in the subjects with no associated pathology.
Table 2. Results of the parameters (normal values are bracketed) of the record of the circadian study during one week of each one of the subjects (blank spaces in the data are due to measurement errors). The bottom shows the average and standard deviation.
Table 3. Average of the results of the parameters that characterise circadian rhythms over the recorded variables (T, TAP and Sleep) of the subjects. Normal limits are shown in brackets between the limiting and optimum values.
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Abstract
Introduction

The objective of the study was to evaluate sleep, circadian rhythms and neurocognitive status of high performance athletes during the usual period of training, competitions and studies.

Materials and methods

A team of 12 high-performance basketball players (women, 15–17 years old) concentrated in a sports residence was evaluated. Sleep was studied through polysomnography, circadian rhythms using ambulatory circadian monitoring sensors, and neurocognitive status using s battery of questionnaires.

Results

Athletes sleep 6:57±0.02h, nocturnal activity of 201.1±33.7% is above normal range (65–135%), regularity of schedules, 72.6±9.2% is also out of range (75–125%). The sleep depth of 85.1±2.6% (normal values between 85 and 100%) is reduced, and the peripheral temperature during the day, of 33.4±0.9°C (normal values between 31 and 33°C) indicates drowsiness.

Conclusions

Our sample of athletes sleep less than the necessary hours, their sleep quality is low due to muscle fatigue and poor habits, and their irregular schedule deteriorates the circadian system. All of this influences both physical and mental performance. It is essential to raise awareness of the importance of improving these sleep habits in order to maintain optimum physical performance.

Keywords:
Sleep
Sports performance
Fatigue
Sleepiness
Circadian rhythms
Invisible training
Resumen
Introducción

El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el sueño, ritmos circadianos y estado neurocognitivo de deportistas de alto rendimiento durante el periodo habitual de entrenamiento, competiciones y estudios.

Materiales y métodos

Se evaluó un equipo de 12 jugadoras (mujeres, 15-17 años) de baloncesto de alto rendimiento, concentrado en una residencia de deportistas. Se estudió el sueño mediante polisomnografía, los ritmos circadianos mediante sensores de monitorización circadiana ambulatoria, y el estado neurocognitivo mediante batería de cuestionarios.

Resultados

Las deportistas duermen 6:57±0,02h, la actividad nocturna del 201,1±33,7% se sitúa por encima de la normalidad (65-135%), la regularidad de horarios, de un 72,6±9,2% también está fuera de rango normal (75-125%). La profundidad de sueño del 85,1±2,6% (valores normales entre 85-100%) es reducida, y la temperatura periférica elevada durante el día, de 33,4±0,9°C (valores normales entre 31-33°C) indica somnolencia.

Conclusiones

Las deportistas de nuestro estudio duermen menos horas de las necesarias, la calidad del sueño es baja debido a la fatiga muscular y a unos malos hábitos, y los horarios irregulares deterioran el sistema circadiano. Todo esto influye en su rendimiento tanto físico como mental. Es básico concienciar al colectivo con todos los estamentos implicados, de la importancia de mejorar estos hábitos de sueño para mantener el rendimiento físico óptimo.

Palabras clave:
Sueño
Rendimiento deportivo
Fatiga
Somnolencia
Ritmos circadianos
Entrenamiento invisible

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