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Vol. 49. Issue 182.
Pages 59-66 (April - June 2014)
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Vol. 49. Issue 182.
Pages 59-66 (April - June 2014)
DOI: 10.1016/j.apunts.2013.09.001
Revisión de los fundamentos teóricos de la gimnasia abdominal hipopresiva
Hypopressive abdominal gymnastics: A theoretical analysis and a review
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M.D.. Cabañas Armesillaa,
Corresponding author
lolacaba@med.ucm.es

Autor para correspondencia. lolacaba@med.ucm.es
, A.. Chapinal Andrésb
a Departamento de Anatomía y Embriología Humana II, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid, España
b Instituto Metrad de Medicina Deportiva, Madrid, España
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Resumen

La gimnasia abdominal hipopresiva (GAH) es un sistema de tonificación de la musculatura abdominal, del suelo pélvico y de los estabilizadores de la columna. Como característica diferenciadora se alega que estos ejercicios no provocan aumento de la presión abdominal.

El objetivo es evaluar la validez de los fundamentos teóricos de la GAH y fundamentar su práctica. Para ello se ha realizado una revisión bibliográfica.

Se han encontrado discrepancias entre los fundamentos teóricos de la GAH en los siguientes puntos: a) La GAH estimula los centros espiratorios e inhibe los inspiratorios. b) La GAH estimula el centro neumotáxico. c) La GAH logra una relajación postural diafragmática. d) Los centros supraespinales respiratorios modulan la tensión postural de la musculatura respiratoria. e) Entrenar la musculatura abdominal mediante ejercicios fásicos disminuye el tono postural. f) Para prevenir la incontinencia urinaria de estrés, se debe priorizar la tonificación de las fibras musculares tipo  i del suelo pélvico.

Palabras clave:
Gimnasia abdominal hipopresiva
Suelo pélvico
Ejercicios abdominales
Incontinencia urinaria
Abstract

Abdominal hypopressive gymnastics (AHG) is a means towards toning the abdominal muscles, muscles of the pelvic floor, and spine stabilizing musculature. As a differentiating trait, it is claimed that the practice of this method's moves does not cause intraabdominal pressure to increase.

The objective of this study is to assess the validity of AHG's theoretical basis and to present arguments for its practice. A literature review is also presented.

Discrepancies were found within the following theoretical grounds of AHG: (i) AHG causes stimulation of the expiratory area, and inhibition of the inspiratory area. (ii) AHG causes stimulation of the pneumotaxic center. (iii) Through AHG, postural relaxation of the diaphragm is achieved. (iv) The supraspinal respiratory centers regulate postural tension of the respiratory musculature. (v) Executing phasic abdominal exercises causes a decrease in postural muscle tone. (vi) In order to prevent stress urinary incontinence, training of type  i fibers in the pelvic floor must be emphasized.

Keywords:
Abdominal hypopressive gymnastics
Pelvic floor
Abdominal exercises
Urinary incontinence

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