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Vol. 49. Issue 181.
Pages 5-10 (January - March 2014)
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Vol. 49. Issue 181.
Pages 5-10 (January - March 2014)
DOI: 10.1016/j.apunts.2013.06.003
Evaluación de factores de riesgo de lesión del ligamento cruzado anterior en jugadores de fútbol de alto nivel
Evaluation of risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament injury in high-level male football players
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Ventura Ferrer-Rocaa,
Corresponding author
venturaferrer1@gmail.com

Autor para correspondencia. venturaferrer1@gmail.com
, Xavier Baliusa, Oscar Domínguez-Castrilloa, F.J.. Lindeb, Antonio Turmo-Garuza,b
a Grup de Recerca GIRSANE, Centre d'Alt Rendiment (CAR), Sant Cugat del Vallés, Barcelona, España
b R.C.D. Espanyol, Barcelona, España
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El objetivo del presente estudio es la detección de factores de riesgo de lesión de ligamento cruzado anterior (LCA) en jugadores de fútbol profesionales al comienzo de la pretemporada. Treinta y cinco jugadores de fútbol de alto nivel fueron analizados mediante un sistema de análisis del movimiento y 2 plataformas de fuerzas. Se analizó el ángulo de rodilla en el plano frontal (valgo-varo) y las fuerzas verticales de reacción de ambas extremidades durante la fase de aterrizaje del drop jump. Se determinó el coeficiente de correlación intraclase. La significación estadística fue considerada para p < 0,05. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre la extremidad más fuerte y la débil en el impulso excéntrico (32,4 Ns; IC 95%, 22,9-41,8 Ns; p < 0,05) y en el impulso concéntrico (14,4 Ns; IC 95%, 9,8-19,1 Ns; p < 0,05). El 31,4% de los futbolistas presentaron valores de falta de balance entre extremidades superior al 15%, y el 14,2% de los jugadores aterrizaron con un ángulo de rodillas en el plano frontal mayor a 20°. La metodología propuesta en el presente estudio ha demostrado ser fiable y sensible en la detección de factores de riesgo asociados a la lesión del LCA.

Palabras clave:
Fútbol
Prevención
Factores de riesgo
Ligamento cruzado anterior
Valgo
Déficit funcional

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is one of the most serious time-loss injuries in football. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate risk factors of ACL injuries in high-level football players during the preseason. Thirty-five high-level players were captured by a video movement analysis system and a two-force platform. Frontal plane knee angle and vertical force were measured during the landing phase of the drop jump. Intraclass correlation coefficient was determined to assess test-retest reliability, and α level of 0.05 was considered statistically significant. There were significant differences between the stronger and weaker leg in eccentric (32.4 Ns; 95% CI; 22.9-41.8 Ns; P < .05) and concentric impulse (14.4 Ns; 95% CI, 9,8-19,1 Ns; P < .05). Additionally, 31.4% of the subjects obtained a lower limb strength imbalance higher than 15%. Furthermore, 14.2% of the subjects obtained a frontal plane knee valgus angle higher than 20°. Findings of the present study are particularly significant as a functional deficit higher than 15% and an increased in valgus motion at the knee suggests an altered muscular control of the lower extremity. Furthermore, results confirmed that the test proposed in this study is reliable and sensitive to identify ACL injury intrinsic risk factors in high level male football players in order to introduce the necessary preventive measures.

Keywords:
Football
Prevention
Risk factors
Anterior cruciate ligament
Knee valgus
Functional deficit

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